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Republic of Kazakhstan
География

Geographical location, natural conditions

 

Kazakhstan is located at the turn of two continents, but the capital Astana city is in immediate proximity to the geographical centre of the Eurasian mainland.

On the area Kazakhstan occupies 9-th place in the world, yielding only to Russia, China, USA, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India and Australia. The territory of the republic is 2.724.900 square kilometers.  

Kazakhstan extends on 3000 kilometers from lower current of the Volga River before the West-Siberian lowland on the West and from the Altay foothills on the East; on 2000 kilometers from the West-Siberian plain on the North before the Kyzylkum desert and the Tien Shan Mountains on the South. The most northern point of the Kazakhstan is in latitude 55'26' North corresponds to the South outlying district of the central part of the East-European plain and the South of the British Islands (the latitude of the Moscow), the most southern is in latitude 40'56' North corresponds to the Transcaucasia and Mediterranean countries of the South Europe (the latitude of Baku, Istanbul and Madrid).

Along the length of 7591 kilometer Kazakhstan borders upon the  Russian Federation, Uzbekistan (2354 km), China (1782 km),  Kyrgyzstan (1241 km), Turkmenistan (426 km). General extension of the borders is approximately 14.000 kilometers, including 600 kilometers on the Caspian Sea.

More than a fourth of the Kazakhstan territory occupies the steppe, 44% form the deserts and semi-deserts and 14% are the woods.  Kazakhstan has a rich fauna and flora. On its territory dwell 155 types of mammals, 480 types of birds, 150 types of a fish, numbers 250 types of only medicinal plants. 

In the country run 8.500 large and small rivers. The length of seven rivers exceeds 1000 km. The largest are Ural and Emba, falling into the Caspian Sea, Syr-Darya falls into the Aral Sea. The Irtysh, the Ishim and the Tobol Rivers cross the republic and pertain to the pool of the Arctic Ocean.

In the Kazakhstan number 48000 lakes of the different size. Among them the largest are the Aral Sea, the Balhash, the Zaysan, the Alakol, the Tengiz, and the Seletengiz. The most of the northern part and the half of the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea pertain to the Kazakhstan. The length of the Kazakhstan coast of the Caspian Sea is 2340 km.

The distance from the ocean and big territory determine sharply continental nature of the country climate, its zone and deficit of the precipitation. The average temperature of the January is approximately from -19 before -4 degrees С, and the average temperature of the July is from +19 before +26 degrees C with significant difference in the regions. The lowest temperature in winter reaches -45 degrees C; the highest temperature is +30 degrees C. Four natural zones cross the territory - forest-steppe (North, East), steppe (North, East, West, and Centre), semi-desert (West, Centre, South, East) and desert (West, Centre, and South). For the majority of republic's area strong winds are typical.

Last time on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan there are some natural phenomena like earthquakes, natural hydrometeorology phenomena. The reduction of the Aral Sea and ecologically unfavorable influence of atomic firing range consequences can be concerned to the biggest anthropological impact.

 

Population

 

The number of population of Kazakhstan in 2005 has formed 15 million 74, 2 thousand of people. Density of population is 5, 5 people on 1 square kilometer. The urban population forms 57%, the rest is rural population.

In 2004 number of population of the Republic increased on 123, 0 thousand of people, or on 0, 8%. The growing of number of population have occurred both because of increase of birth rate and immigration, and reduction of death-rate. 97, 3% increase of the number of Republic population has occurred due to the natural increase (119, 6 thousand of people) and 2, 7% is due to the migratory increase (3, 4 thousand of people). The number of population in the towns increased in compare with January 1, 2004, on 116, 4 thousand of people, in the rural area it increased on 6, 6 thousand. 

Altogether in the Kazakhstan live the representatives of 131 nationalities. In ethnic composition of the population the largest nationality groups in the Republic are Kazakhs, Russians, Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Germans, Tatars, Uigurs; they make up 95% from the total number of country population. In composition of the population of Kazakhstan the most multiple are Kazakhs, who form 53, 4 percents, Russians form approximately one third.

The number of the aboriginal population of the Republic since 1999 increased on 640 thousand of people, basically because of the natural increase which takes 75% from the total increase. The relative density of Uzbeks in the total number of population for this time increased on 0, 3%, Uigurs - 0, 1%, Azerbaijani - 0, 1%. The relative density of Germans reduced on 0, 9%, Ukrainians - on 0, 7%, Russians - on 3, 3%, Tatars - on 0, 2%. Like in previous years, there is a natural decrease of the population on separate nationalities.

Kazakh live in 55 countries abroad, including all former USSR Republics and in 41 foreign countries. There are many Kazakhs in the  Uzbekistan, where live 967.000 people, in the Russian Federation - 687.000, in the Turkmenistan - 87.000, in the Kyrgyzstan - 42.000, in the Ukraine - 10.000, in the Tajikistan - 10.000, in the Azerbaijan - 4.000, in Georgia - 3.000, in Moldova - 2.000, in Latvia - 1.000. In the foreign countries such as China lives 1.258.000, in Mongolia - 83.000, in Afghanistan - 28.000, in Turkey - 20.000, in Iran - 3.000 of Kazakh people. 

 

State structures, administrative and territorial system

 

Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary State with the presidential form of the rule. The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan - the Head of State, its high official. The President is elected by the voting for five-year term.

The State power in the Republic is single and realized on the base of the Constitution and laws in accordance with principle of its division on legislative, executive and judicial branches and interactions between itself with use of the system сдержек and counterweight.

The high representative body of the Republic, realizing legislative functions is a Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Parliament consists of two Chambers acting on a constant basis:  Senate (is elected for 6 years) and Mazhilis (is elected for 5 years);

The Government of Kazakhstan heads the executive system and realizes the management of its activity.

 The Justice in the Republic of Kazakhstan is fulfilled only by the Court. The Courts of the Republic are the Supreme Court of the Republic and local courts of the Republic, founded by the law.

The special position in the political system of Kazakhstan occupies the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It consists of seven members which authorities last six years. The life members of the Constitutional Council are the ex-Presidents of the Republic by right.

The capital of Kazakhstan is Astana city (since December 10, 1997). The population is 529.300 people. In the Republic there are 14 regions, 86 cities including 2 cities of the republican subjection (Astana city, Almaty city), 168 regions (8 regions in the cities), and 174 villages. 

The state language in Kazakhstan is Kazakh, related to the group of the Turkic languages. In the state organizations and local authority on equal terms with state language officially uses the Russian language.

Political parties in the Republic of Kazakhstan have got the special impulse for its development with acceptance by the Parliament in 2002 of new Law "On political parties", called to regulate and put in good order the course of party construction in the Republic of  Kazakhstan, to give the freedom for its consolidation. Obligatory 50-thousandth membership was inserted for the political party formation. In the Republic of Kazakhstan have officially registered 11 political parties. At the present in the country act more than 5000 nongovernmental organizations which realize the work in all socially significant spheres.

In the Kazakhstan function 1915 published mass media including 1325 newspapers and 590 magazines, 184 electronic mass media, including 144 TV companies and TV Radio companies, 40 Radio companies and 11 information agencies. 77% of mass media are private. The owners of 159 mass media are public associations, 11 editions belong to the political parties and movements and 10 belong to the religious organizations. In the Kazakhstan there is a dynamic development of Internet and cable TV. On the information market extensively used the modern information technologies.

 

Natural resources potential

 

Kazakhstan is possessed of various minerals. From 105 elements of Mendeleyev table in the bowels of Kazakhstan 99 elements are revealed; explored supplies of 70 elements; in production it is involved more than 60 elements.

Kazakhstan occupies the first place in the world on prospected supplies of zinc, tungsten and barite, the second place: silver, lead and chromites, the third - copper and fluorite, the fourth - molybdenum, the sixth - gold. At the present it is known 493 entrails, containing 1225 types of mineral raw materials.

Kazakhstan occupies the first place on supplies volume of the chrome ore and lead amongst the C.I.S. countries, the second place is on the oils supplies, silver, copper, manganese, zinc, nickel and phosphoric raw materials, the third place is on the gas, coal, gold and tin.

On the silver, chromites, lead and zinc mining Republic of Kazakhstan occupies the first place amongst the C.I.S. countries, the second place is on the oil, coal, copper, nickel and phosphate raw materials mining, the third place is on the gold mining. Kazakhstan disposes of abundant supplies of oil and gas concentrated in the west region allowing refer the Republic to the category of the largest oil-producing States in the world. The opening of a new oil-bearing region within the South-Turgay cavity enlarges the prospects of the further development of the Republic's oil-producing.

As a result of geological-economic evaluation of the mineral supplies in existence of Kazakhstan the coal, oil, copper, iron, lead, zinc, chromites, gold and manganese are of the great economic importance. 

 

Economy

 

In the Kazakhstan has formulated a real working market economy.

At the present time the industrial production output realize more than 2700 enterprises, where toil 812.000 people, or approximately one third of all occupied in the sphere of material production. Among the key industries are non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy. Due to its high level of quality Kazakhstan copper, lead, zinc and cadmium are in requisition and competitive on the world market.

Today the main source of the economic growing is a usage of the raw materials potential of the country. In comparison with 1985 the volume of a hydrocarbon raw product mining has grew up on 225 percents whereas all over the world mining increased less than in 1,3 times.

The European countries occupy the great part in the Kazakhstan export volume. Kazakhstan is large fuel-energy region. The main consumers of the Kazakhstan export amongst the European countries are Switzerland, Italy, Poland, and Germany. The export in the European countries increases due to the oil, ferroalloy, metallurgical industry production and wheat selling.  Increase the volumes of the Kazakhstan production deliveries in the countries of the Asiatic region, where Chinese enterprises are one of the main consumers.

GDP per head for ten years back increased from 700 dollars in three times nearly. In 2010 Kazakhstan has a possibility to reach the GDP per head more than 5800 US dollars that is a present level of such countries as Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Malaysia, and in 2015 – up to 9000 US dollars.

The financial system of the Kazakhstan is recognized as a one of the most progressive among the C.I.S. countries. Kazakhstan first created the National fund for ensuring the stable social-economic development, reduction of dependency from unfavorable external factors. In the National fund has accumulated 5 milliard 300 million dollars. Gold and exchange currency reserves of the country taking into account the National fund exceed 14 milliard US dollars as a whole.

In the republic economy attracted approximately 40 milliard US dollars as direct foreign investments.

Kazakhstan consecutively conducts the open foreign trade policy. In 2004 the volume of the foreign trade turnover approached to 33 milliard US dollars with a positive balance over 7 milliard dollars and increased more then in 3 times in comparison with 1994.

The foreign trade geography which at the first years of independence basically included the Commonwealth of Independent States has noticeably diversified. In the structure of the Kazakhstan trade turnover on the first place appeared the EU country-members, Russia, Switzerland and China in 2004.

At the present time Kazakhstan on classification of the World Bank is included into the group of the countries with an average level of income. In compare with basic indexes of a life quality, for the last 10 years cash incomes of Kazakh people increased in 5 times at the average; almost in 6 times increased average monthly salary; in 25 times increased the minimum salary; average monthly pension quantity increased in 4,6 times; the deposits of the individual persons in banks and deposit volume for one inhabitant increased in 35 and 37 times accordingly. The state expenses on guaranteed volume of a free medical aid in 2005 increased more then in 1,7 times in comparison with 2003.

The progressive economic growing in Kazakhstan has allowed vastly extending of the social directivity of the state expenses that is indicate a reached high safety factor of the country economy.